Archive for Science

Shut Up and Eat

Oh, the world is too crowded! Oh, people will starve! (Won’t one problem solve the other?) Oh, there’s nothing to be done!

Except grow more food:

Once home to his father’s hardscrabble cattle-and-crop farm, Stine has, without attracting any widespread notice, developed some of the most valuable agricultural products on Earth here. With more than 900 patents, Stine sells his coveted soybean and corn seed genetics to agri-giants like Monsanto and Syngenta, nabbing estimated annual sales of more than $1 billion with margins in excess of 10%. Along with his four children, Stine owns almost 100%.

Based in Adel, Iowa (pop. 4,000), the dozen or so companies under Stine’s umbrella form an unlikely titan at the heart of the market, directly or indirectly generating revenues from almost 50 million acres of crops in the U.S. each year.

Stine Seed does business with all of the heavyweights and has for more than three decades, primarily because it has something everybody else needs: the best-performing soybean seeds in the business. Through plant breeding, a roughly 10,000-year-old technique that’s not unlike creating Thoroughbred horses or show dogs, Stine has been perfecting the genetic makeup of soybean seeds–primarily used in animal feed and to produce vegetable oils–since the 1960s.

Today 60% of all U.S. soybean acreage is planted using genetics developed by Stine’s companies, which also have a strong presence in South America and other international markets. FORBES estimates that Stine’s company–which, among other things, also breeds corn genetics, creates plant traits in its biotech lab and has a small but growing commercial seed sales operation–is worth nearly $3 billion.

While rivals scoff, he now thinks he can double the world’s output of corn, the most popular crop on Earth. By breeding corn seeds genetically predisposed to thrive when planted in high densities, he thinks he can supercharge the engine generating animal feed, biofuels and food for the whole planet. “We’re going to be able to double corn yields very easily,” says Stine.

Stine flipped the conventional wisdom on its head. He began breeding corn to thrive at higher planting density: shorter plants with smaller tassels and more upright leaves that attract more sunlight. A leaner, more efficient plant. After breeding many descendants of the seeds with that genetic makeup, the company has developed corn that can be planted in much narrower rows–12 inches or even pairs of rows 8 inches apart–increasing the number of plants per acre to as much as 80,000. And, of ultimate importance, substantially increasing a farmer’s harvest.

Not everyone is convinced, but I wouldn’t bet against his record. Anyway, compare this small town, midwesterner with our bi-coastal commander in chief. The closest Obama has ever come to agriculture is to smoke two (or more?) of its products. His is the conventional ignorance (it’s hardly wisdom) that we’re cooking and stripping the earth of its resources. The left claims to love science, but creates the weirdest of boogiemen around GMO crops. Never mind that we’ve GMO-ed pretty much every edible plant and domesticated animal for millennia—just not in a lab—the application of science and technology to food production (aka farming) has them running for the hills. So, maybe they’ll never grow this corn in Iowa or Nebraska, but if they know what’s good for them, they’ll be growing it in Zimbabwe and other fertile nations of Africa.

Some people throw up their hands and wonder what will become of the world. Others put their hands to work and head out to the fields (or labs) to fill silos and tummies around the world. (And get filthy rich doing so!)

PS: My own garden is a smaller organic affair of heirloom tomatoes, cukes for pickling, string beans, and, in the perennial triumph of hope over experience, beets. But I can afford to d*ck around. If I get only two decent beets out of a row, I can just nip down to Whole Foods to buy more. Where does Africa go when their crop yields fall short?


A website based on deceit and fraud, designed by the government, intended to sell you on a thoroughly discredited theory…do these guys never learn?

The Obama administration is launching a new online effort to warn the public about the dangers of climate change.

The White House is unveiling a new website Wednesday,, that will let citizens, businesses and local governments take the latest scientific data and see how their communities will be affected by rising seas, heat waves and drought.

The website is part of U.S. President Barack Obama’s efforts to boost public support for his initiative to fight climate change.

It worked so well for health care!

Imagine if old pharaoh had had the internet at his disposal to let the citizens of ancient Egypt see how the plague of frogs would effect the kingdom from Memphis to Thebes. “The Romans just want to help the single-cubits. We want all folks to receive their fair share of manna.”

Because you rely on me, I clicked over to (an Orwellian URL if there ever was one).

I sh*t you not:


However stupid these people are, we folks are even stupider. Would ancient Egyptians have fallen for “If you like your first-born, you can keep your first-born”?


Cure HIV? Ask Me How!

Who said the Muslim world hasn’t contributed to science in centuries (millennia)?

An Egyptian TV channel recently aired a report on an Egyptian military invention of the first device that cures the HIV and hepatitis C viruses.

Anchor: There have been many reactions to the publications in the media that the Egyptian Military Engineering Department has invented a device that produces electro-magnetic waves, which eliminate the hepatitis C virus within 10 days with no side effects. The device has a 100% success rate.

General Dr. Ibrahim ‘Abd Al-’Aati, head of the team that invented the device: For this device, I was offered two billion dollars. I’m talking dollars! I was offered two billion dollars to forget about it, but I refused. I told them to write “an Arab Muslim Egyptian scientist discovered this.” But they said: “Forget about it. Just take the check, and we will fly you to any country in the world.” I said: “Why should I?” I fled back to Egypt. The Egyptian intelligence agency has protected me here. The intelligence nabbed me and brought me here.

Reporter: In 2010, the Egyptian military successfully invented a device that can identify a hepatitis C virus carrier in a crowd. Today, using the same methods, they have invented a treatment device. The patient’s blood passes through the device, which produces electro-magnetic waves that kill the virus, and turn it into amino acids.

D’oh! Why didn’t we think of that? Heckuva job, Anwar! Now, how about another machine that can turn malignant tumors into lime jello?

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Giving One’s Life for Science

These Antarctic explorers are the Marie Curies of our time:

The leader of a scientific expedition whose ship remains stranded in Antarctic ice says the team, which set out to prove climate change, is “stuck in our own experiment.”

But Chris Turney, a professor of climate change at Australia’s University of New South Wales, said it was “silly” to suggest he and 73 others aboard the MV Akademic Shokalskiy were trapped in ice they’d sought to prove had melted. He remained adamant that sea ice is melting, even as the boat remained trapped in frozen seas.

“Sea ice is disappearing due to climate change, but here ice is building up,” the Australasian Antarctic Expedition said in a statement.

“We were just in the wrong place at the wrong time.”

Yeah, Antarctica in summer! Not one but two ice cutters had to abort the mission to rescue your clueless asses. Even a helicopter is considered risky.

If you think I’m harsh:

“Cute how these Warmists who hate fossil fuels take a trip to the Antarctic to show just how horrible fossil-fueled climate change is, then need rescue from their fossil-fueled trip by other fossil-fueled ships and helicopters, which still can’t rescue them,” wrote one blogger on Pirate’s Cove.

The website Newsbusters said much of the media has bent over backward to avoid linking the ship’s current fate with its mission.

“Somewhere far, far to the south where it is summer, a group of global warming scientists are trapped in the Antarctic ice,” read a post on the site. “If you missed the irony of that situation, it is because much of the mainstream media has glossed over that rather inconvenient bit of hilarity.”

Turney‘s team is studying climate change, as well as how wildlife is adapting to it. He noted that numerous penguins have traipsed across the ice from the nearby mainland to curiously observe the explorers.

I’ll bet.


Don’t Like the Climate? Wait Five Minutes

Don’t like climate “science”? Wait five years:

In the 1960s and 1970s, a growing scientific consensus held that the Earth was entering a period of global cooling. The CIA announced that the “Western world’s leading climatologists have confirmed recent reports of detrimental global climatic change” akin to the Little Ice Age of the 17th and 18th centuries, “an era of drought, famine and political unrest in the western world.” President Jimmy Carter signed the National Climate Program Act to deal with the coming global cooling crisis. Newsweek magazine published a chilling article entitled “The Cooling World.”

In the decades that followed, as temperatures rose, climate skeptics mocked the global cooling hypothesis and a new theory emerged — that Earth was in fact entering a period of global warming.

Now an increasing number of scientists are swinging back to the thinking of the 1960s and 1970s. The global cooling hypothesis may have been right after all, they say. Earth may be entering a new Little Ice Age.

“Real risk of a Maunder Minimum ‘Little Ice Age,’” announced the BBC this week, in reporting startling findings by Professor Mike Lockwood of Reading University. “Professor Lockwood believes solar activity is now falling more rapidly than at any time in the last 10,000 years [raising the risk of a new Little Ice Age] from less than 10% just a few years ago to 25-30%,” explained Paul Hudson, the BBC’s climate correspondent.

Scientists at the Climate and Environmental Physics and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of Berne in Switzerland back up theories that support the Sun’s importance in determining the climate on Earth. In a paper published this month by the American Meteorological Society, the authors demolish the claims by IPCC scientists that the Sun couldn’t be responsible for major shifts in climate. In a post on her website this month, Judith Curry, Chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology, all-but mocked the IPCC assertions that solar variations don’t matter. Among the many studies and authorities she cited: the National Research Council’s recent report, “The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate,” and NASA, former home of global warming guru James Hansen.

The sun, ha! These crazy scientists! What, is Professor Irwin Corey advising them?


All you haters who mocked the namesake of ObamaCare for claiming he could halt the rise in ocean levels—how do you like him now, bitches?

Only one thing…

The Obama Administration is planning to introduce a pledge to make additional steep cuts in U.S. carbon emissions after 2020 in the wake of a little-noticed United Nations conference on greenhouse gas emissions that is the latest step toward a new treaty to take the place of the tattered Kyoto Protocol.

The administration itself says that its forthcoming emissions targets—and continuing staunch support for the war against “climate change”—are intended help to kick-start a virtuous competition among nations, spurred on by interest groups, hosts of non-government organizations, and the sprawling global network of United Nations organizations to push the faltering climate process away from the ditch of disinterest where it has increasingly been heading.

Dude, the war against climate change is over! You won. Declare victory and go home. As in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria—you know how it’s done.

What a loser!


Islam Called It!

No more snide comments from me about the oxymoronic state of Islamic “learning”. Countless imams have declared Jews the descendants of apes and pigs. Turns out, they were right!

Of course, so are Muslims:

The human species began as the hybrid offspring of a male pig and a female chimpanzee, a leading geneticist has suggested.

The startling claim has been made by Eugene McCarthy, of the University of Georgia, who is also one of the worlds leading authorities on hybridisation in animals.

He points out that while humans have many features in common with chimps, we also have a large number of distinguishing characteristics not found in any other primates.

Dr McCarthy says these divergent characteristics are most likely the result of a hybrid origin at some point far back in human evolutionary history.

What’s more, he suggests, there is one animal that has all of the traits which distinguish humans from our primate cousins in the animal kingdom.

‘What is this other animal that has all these traits?’ he asks rhetorically. ‘The answer is Sus scrofa, the ordinary pig.’

Who you callin’ “ordinary”, son? I’m your father.

Dr McCarthy says that the original pig-chimp hook up was probably followed by several generations of ‘backcrossing’, where the offspring of that pairing lived among chimps and mated with them – becoming more like chimps and less like pigs with every new generation.

This also helps to explain the problem of relative infertility in hybrids. Dr McCarthy points out that the belief that all hybrids are sterile is in fact false, and in many cases hybrid animals are able to breed with mates of the same species of either parent.

After several generations the hybrid strain would have become fertile enough to breed amongst themselves, Dr McCarthy says.

As reasonable and thoughtful as this sounds, you will be surprised to learn the theory has its detractors:

One important criticism, which dubs his theory the ‘Monkey-F******-A-Pig hypothesis’, is that there is little chance that pigs and chimps could be interfertile. The two orders of creatures, according to evolutionary theory, diverged roughly 80 million years ago, a ScienceBlogs post points out.

‘[J]ust the gradual accumulation of molecular differences in sperm and egg recognition proteins would mean that pig sperm wouldn’t recognize a chimpanzee egg as a reasonable target for fusion,’ PZ Myers writes.

Furthermore, the blogger explains, while chimps have 48 chromosomes, pigs have just 38.

He adds: ‘Hybridizing a pig and a chimp is like taking half the dancers from a performance of Swan Lake and the other half from a performance of Giselle and throwing them together on stage to assemble something. It’s going to be a catastrophe.’

Finally, he suggests rather impudently that Dr McCarthy do the experimental work himself and try mating with a pig to see how far he gets.

Someone just tried that: it’s called ObamaCare.


The Sounds of Settled Science

So, we know everything, huh? We’ve got something as impenetrable as climate silence figured out, sorted.

My knee we do:

Two knee surgeons in Belgium say they have identified a previously unfamiliar ligament in the human knee.

Writing in the Journal of Anatomy, they suggest the fibrous band could play a part in one of the most common sports injuries worldwide.

Despite glimpses of the ligament in medical history, this is the first time its structure and purpose have been so clearly established, they say.

There are about 14 billion human knees on the planet right now, give or take a few hundred million. Some, like Jessica Alba’s, are more noteworthy than others, but there’s no shortage of knees to poke and prod.

Yet we just found this thing? Congratulations, Belgian scientists, I hope they name it after you, but big whoop.

Now, this is Big Science:

Astronomers have estimated how many of the 100 billion stars in our galaxy hosts a potentially habitable planet.

Using data from Nasa’s Kepler space telescope, they argue that one in five stars like the Sun hosts an Earth-sized world located in the “habitable zone”.

I’m no Nobel laureate, but did it ever occur to the Best and the Brightest in HHS to test ObamaCare on one of these planets before importing this big stinking pile onto this one? They could have named it ZardozCare, and avoided humiliating the great Sorry One himself.


To Gaia: You’re Welcome

Our pleasure:

Scientists have warned that carbon dioxide and methane levels reached record highs in 2012, reports the World Meteorological Organization.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were 141 percent above pre-industrial levels last year.

“As a result of this (increase in greenhouse gases), our climate is changing, our weather is more extreme, ice sheets and glaciers are melting and sea levels are rising,” said WMO secretary-general Michael Jarraud.

A meteorologist getting [bleep] wrong: imagine that!

Yet the evidence suggests that weather has not gotten more extreme and that sea levels rises have been below United Nations estimates. Furthermore, arctic sea ice reached record levels this year despite much higher greenhouse gas concentrations.

Most importantly, according to skeptical scientists, global temperatures have not risen since 1998 despite findings that global greenhouse gas emissions 35.6 billion metric tons in in 2012 — a record high.

According to research from scientist Roger Pielke of the University of Colorado, hurricanes have not increased in frequency, intensity or normalized damage in the U.S. since 1900. Similarly, Tornadoes and tropical cyclones have also not become more intense or frequent since 1950 and 1970, respectfully.

U.S. floods have not increased in frequency or intensity since 1950, according to Pielke, and droughts have become shorter, less frequent, and smaller over the last century. Globally, floods have changed very little in the last 60 years.

“It is misleading and just plain incorrect to claim that disasters associated with hurricanes, tornadoes, floods or droughts have increased on climate timescales either in the United States or globally,” Pielke said in his testimony before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee.

I love the smell of 35.6 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide in the morning. It smells like affluence.

I’ve been holding back on going after the hurricane predictions because the season runs to the end of the month. As the story is “heating up”, however:


Dude, Where’s My Ice Floe?

Little help here…?

Relax, Paulie. You’ll be fine:

The 17-year pause in global warming is likely to last into the 2030s and the Arctic sea ice has already started to recover, according to new research.

A paper in the peer-reviewed journal Climate Dynamics – by Professor Judith Curry of the Georgia Institute of Technology and Dr Marcia Wyatt – amounts to a stunning challenge to climate science orthodoxy.

Not only does it explain the unexpected pause, it suggests that the scientific majority – whose views are represented by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – have underestimated the role of natural cycles and exaggerated that of greenhouse gases.

The research comes amid mounting evidence that the computer models on which the IPCC based the gloomy forecasts of a rapidly warming planet in its latest report, published in September, are diverging widely from reality.

Very nice use of euphemism! “Diverging widely from reality”—I would have said FOS. But with the holiday party scene approaching, I now have a useful phrase to use when someone brings up Obama over a glass of egg nog. “I think his words and deeds diverge widely from reality.” You can even say it with a smile (sh*t-eating grin may be a better description): di-i-i-i-verge wi-i-i-i-dely from rea-a-a-a-lity.

The pause means there has been no statistically significant increase in world average surface temperatures since the beginning of 1997, despite the models’ projection of a steeply rising trend.

According to Dr Hawkins, the divergence is now so great that the world’s climate is cooler than what the models collectively predicted with ‘five to 95 per cent certainty’.

Curry and Wyatt say they have identified a climatic ‘stadium wave’ – the phenomenon known in Britain as a Mexican wave, in which the crowd at a stadium stand and sit so that a wave seems to circle the audience.

In similar fashion, a number of cycles in the temperature of air and oceans, and the level of Arctic ice, take place across the Northern hemisphere over decades. Curry and Wyatt say there is evidence of this going back at least 300 years.

According to Curry and Wyatt, the theory may explain both the warming pause and why the computer models did not forecast it.

Professor Curry went much further. ‘The growing divergence between climate model simulations and observations raises the prospect that climate models are inadequate in fundamental ways,’ she said.

Imagine scientists using data, and not pure hypothesis, to conduct, you know, science. That’s Old School!

We had a reader leave three comments last night. Two called us racists, one praised Richard Nixon, and one declared skepticism of global warming to be… racist or something. I forget. I deleted them. We encourage dissenting views here, but we’re not stuck on a subway train. Ranting crazies aren’t allowed aboard. That goes especially for you, Al Gore.


False Advertising

If ever a story did not deliver what the headline promised… this is that story:

The Bay of Bengal, in peril from climate change

Nearly one in four people on earth live in the countries that border the Bay of Bengal. The region is strategically vital to Asia’s rising powers. Its low-lying littoral – including coastal regions of eastern India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra – is home to over half a billion people who are now acutely vulnerable to rising sea levels. Storms are a constant threat; over the weekend, a cyclone, Phailin, swept in from the bay to strike the coastal Indian state of Odisha, leading to the evacuation of some 800,000 people.

The bay was once a maritime highway between India and China, and then was shaped by monsoons and migration as European powers exploited the region for its coffee, tea and rubber. Today the bay is being reshaped again by the forces of population growth and climate change.

You already said that. Where’s the proof?

The Bay of Bengal’s coasts are under assault in every dimension: by water conflicts in the Himalayas and by drilling for oil and gas in the deep sea. The bay is a sink of pollution borne by the great rivers that spill into it, including the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Salween. Dam construction in China and India threatens downstream communities in India, Bangladesh and mainland Southeast Asia. With sea level rising and deltaic lands subsiding, saltwater intrusion onto farmlands has accelerated, with serious consequences for food production.

The purported rise in sea levels, then, is but one factor, and a small one at that.

If even that:

As Dr. Willie Soon of Harvard shows, ocean level variation is large and affected by many factors. If temperatures rise, water expands, adding to sea level rise. If icecaps melt, levels rise, but if icecaps grow due to increased snowfall, levels fall. If ocean saltiness changes, the water volume will also change.

The land itself moves continuously. Some shorelines are rising and some are subsiding. The land around Hudson Bay in Canada is rising, freed of ice from the last ice age. In contrast, the area around New Orleans is sinking. Long-term movement of Earth’s tectonic plates also changes sea level.

Tides are a major source of ocean variation, primarily caused by the gravitational pull of the moon, the sun, and the rotation of the Earth. Ocean water “sloshes” from shore to shore, with tides changing as much as 38 feet per day at the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. The global average tide range is about one meter, but this daily change is still 300 times the three-millimeter change that scientists claim to be able to measure over an entire year.

Storms and weather are major factors affecting satellite measurements. Wave heights change by meters each day, dwarfing the annual rise in ocean level. Winds also change the height of the sea. The easterly wind of a strong La Niña pushes seas at Singapore to a meter higher than in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

Satellites themselves have error bias. Satellite specifications claim a measurement accuracy of about one or two centimeters. How can scientists then measure an annual change of three millimeters, which is almost ten times smaller than the error in daily measurements? Measuring tools typically must have accuracy ten times better than the quantity to be measured, not ten times worse.

What the dire assertion of calamity lacks in science, it makes up for in timing.

The last time a storm as powerful as Cyclone Phailin struck the eastern coast of India, 10,000 people died.

So the sense of relief is strong in the state of Odisha, where Phailin made landfall this weekend.

“I felt like I was going to die, everyone was so tense,” said Raju Pradhan, who lives with his family in Odisha.

At least 13 deaths were reported in Odisha, among fewer than 20 recorded across India.

Every death is tragic, but considering Phailin was the strongest tropical storm to hit India in more than a decade, the toll could have been much higher.

You can sense the disappointment, can’t you? Can you also sense the illogic? In what sense are the “one in four people on earth” living in the region be at peril when 99.8% fewer people died this time than last? Evacuation made the difference, presumably, but isn’t that thanks to the technology made possible by the very first-world lifestyle under attack today?

Pollution and subsidence may be serious problems (how would I know?), but claims of imminent peril based on unproven (even disproven!) fright scenarios are rank dishonesty.

Besides, as India proves with distressing frequency, an ingrown toenail can lead to mass casualties:

The death toll in a weekend stampede outside a temple in central India has risen to 112, and more than 100 others are injured, authorities said.

The stampede happened Sunday on a bridge over the Sindh River in Ratangarh, where pilgrims were headed to a temple for a Hindu festival.

A rumor that the bridge was about to collapse caused panicked people to stampede, police told CNN sister network CNN-IBN. About 25,000 people were on the bridge at the time, said D.K. Arya, a local deputy police inspector.

Nearly six times as many people died at a religious festival as in the cyclone. Maybe the water level in the Sindh River was rising due to global warming.


Pretty Sad.

Yesterday I wrote about the fact that the Nobel Prize in physics went to Peter Higgs and François Englert, who is a Holocaust survivor. Today we learn that Peter Higgs is a rabid anti-Semite, boycotts all contact with Israel, and refuses to acknowledge that Englert is affiliated with Tel Aviv University. We further note that none of the MSM yesterday bothered to fill us in on Englert’s connection to Israel.

François Englert, 80, a Belgian Holocaust survivor, was yesterday awarded the Nobel Prize in physics together with British physicist Peter Higgs.
Englert is a Sackler Professor in the School of Physics and Astronomy at Tel Aviv University, and has taught at, done research at, and been associated with Tel Aviv University for over 30 years. He is also a professor emeritus at the University of Brussels.

Interesting – but not surprisingly – in their reports yesterday, media outlets with a track record of hostility to Israel, such as the New York Times, did not mention in their quite lengthy articles that Englert, a Belgium-born Jew, is a professor at Tel Aviv University, and a Holocaust survivor.

In 2004, Englert, Higgs and Robert Brout won the Wolf prize, an Israeli award granted by the Wolf Foundation and seen as a precursor to the Nobel. (Englert’s colleague Robert Brout passed away in 2011; otherwise he may have also shared yesterday’s Nobel Prize.)

(Tom Gross exclusive:) Englert’s British co-winner of Nobel Prize for Physics, Professor Peter Higgs, effectively refuses to acknowledge the fact his co-recipient teaches at Tel Aviv University. Higgs is calling for an academic boycott of Israel, and refused to attend the Wolf prize ceremony.

Other articles indicate that Higgs spends time on blogs ranting against Israel. What a disappointment.

- Aggie


Move Over, Physicists

Aggie, tell the Physics Nobel Prize laureate he’s had his fifteen minutes.

Today is a new day, with new Israeli Nobel laureates:

Three Jewish American scientists, two of which have Israeli citizenship, won the 2013 Nobel Prize for chemistry on Wednesday for laying the foundations for development of computers to understand complex chemical processes from the purification of exhaust fumes to photosynthesis.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in a statement, when awarding the prize of 8 million crowns ($1.25 million), that Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel had pioneered the use of computer models that mirror chemical reactions.

“The Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2013 have made it possible to map the mysterious ways of chemistry by using computers. Detailed knowledge of chemical processes makes it possible to optimize catalysts, drugs and solar cells.”

Arieh Warshel was born 1940 in Kibbutz Sde-Nahumc in Israel. He received a PhD in 1969 from Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. He is a distinguished Professor at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, California.

Michael Levitt is a US, British and Israeli citizen. He was born in 1947 in Pretoria, South Africa. He received a PhD in 1971 from the University of Cambridge in the UK. He is also a Robert W. and Vivian K. Cahill Professor in Cancer Research at Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, California.

Martin Karplus, a US and Austrian citizen was born 1930 in Vienna, Austria. He received a PhD in 1953 from California Institute of Technology in California. He is a Professeur Conventionné at the Université de Strasbourg in France and Harvard University, Cambridge.

Don’t worry, Arabs. The Israelis may clean up all the awards, but you truly honor the Nobel name. He invented dynamite.

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